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CLASS – X

June 8, 2013 in class 10th

Visit the site and get updated about the latest CBSE marking scheme for Class- X English Communicative.

http://media.mycbseguide.com/files/10/englishA/syllabus/2015_syllabus_10_english_A.pdf?Signature=lGJVi2roJVOkrj9rvKTO8UpCjiQ%3D&Expires=1370666644&AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIUU7QLRROL6JEIPA

Class X Sample Papers

August 31, 2012 in class 10th, Sample Papers, Uncategorized

Click on the link below to see the Marking Scheme and the CBSE Sample paper for Class X English Communicative.

http://www.cbseacademic.in/web_material/Circulars/2012/46_ClassX/46_C_Eng._Com_X.pdf

Rime of the Ancient Mariner

January 21, 2012 in class 10th

PART –I

Line 1:
It is an Ancient Mariner

• The poem opens abruptly (suddenly) in the manner of a ballad (which can be sung) without any wasteful description.

• Our attention is immediately drawn to the central figure of the story i.e. the mariner.

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Ancient Mariner :

• Ancient conveys the two fold sense of ‘old’ & of ‘old time’.
• An atmosphere of bygone days permeates throughout the whole poem.

Line 2:
Three

• This number has mystical & supernatural associations.

Line 3 :
Long grey beard & glittering eye.

• These are two of the most striking features of the mariner’s appearance.

• Time & again in the course of the poem we are reminded of one or the other of these features.

• They lend a sense of mystery to his personality, at the same time they bring a touch of vividness to the description.

Line-3 & 4 :

• The wedding guest is irritated at being interrupted.

• He is the next of kin & his impatience is quite understandable.

• There is going to be however a change in his attitude.

• He is going to listen to the mariner with a peculiar docility ( not very much opposing).

• This change of attitude suggests how powerful is the impact of the mariner’s story.

Line – 10:
The mariner, totally unheedful of the wedding guest’s impatience, again plunges into the story abruptly. This lends another touch of weirdness to his personality.

Line – 12: Eftsoons.
• This means soon after or immediately. The archaic phraseology is used to suggest the atmosphere of the bygone days. The mariner drops the hand off the wedding guest and holds him only with the glittering eye. The fascination is now complete. The guest is not going to show any further impatience.

Line-15 & 16:
• Mark the complete change in the attitude of the wedding guest. He is now as eager & docile as a 3 year’s child.
• These 2 lines were contributed by William Wordsworth.

Line – 21:
• The story once again begins with an abruptness peculiar to it. This abruptness suggests the rapid pace of the narrator. Notice how vivid is the description of the people gathered on the coast to bid the sailors’ farewell & the sailing away of the ship.
• A critic comments, “ it is indeed a voyage from the world of reality into the world of imagination. But Coleridge’s genius has helped us to believe that the wonders that are to follow are convincing as he has used simple device of giving us a setting of actual possibility.”

Line 23 & 24:
• The objects i.e. the kirk, the hill, the lighthouse top are mentioned in the order in which they disappear from the mariner’s sight.

Line -30:
• The sun is getting more & more overhead everyday. They are approaching the equator.
Line 31 & 31:
• So far no dramatic element has entered the story. So when the wedding guest hears the sound of merry making, he is not able to control or hide his impatience.
• The magic of the glittering eye is probably losing its hold. But once the narrative will begin again, and on a more dramatic note, the listener is all attention.
• He again interrupts the mariner in line 79 but out of fear rather than impatience.

Line 41 to 44:
• The storm is personified here. As the narrative gains intensity the words used become more meaningful.

Line-43:
• The storm is being described as a bird of prey chasing its victim.

Line 45 to 50:
• The ship is presented as a fear stricken person fleeing from his enemy who is closely chasing him.

Line -55: Dismal Sheen.
• Sheen means brightness. But ‘dismal sheen’ suggests cheerless brightness. The mariner could not have liked the brightness of ice in that region of cold and desolate atmosphere; hence to him the brightness of ice appears to be dull & cheerless.

Line -59:
• The ice made fearful noises like an angry monster.
• A critic comments on this & the next few scenes, just as the intense cold forms so marked a contrast with the fiery heat of the coming scene to which all this is but leading, so do these fearful noises, prepare by contrast for fearful silence to follow.

Line-62:
• This description shrouds the albatross with mystery. He suddenly appears on the scene as if from nowhere.

Line- 63:
• In that region of dreary desolation, the albatross is the only representative of life. The words “Christian soul” at once gave him human and divine associations. He is considered to be a bird of good omen and is hailed with great joy & hospitality.

Line 50 – 70:
• A critic comments on these lines in a very interesting manner. He says “The details of the voyage are all chronicled (recorded) with such order & regularity , that there is such a diary like air about the whole thing , that we accept it almost as if it were a series of extracts from a ship’s records.”
• In these lines Coleridge makes the ship enter the polar region, the land of mist & snow , the land where huge monster like icebergs drift about making fearful noises.

Line 74:
Shrouds
• It is a rope reaching from the masthead to the side of the ship to which it is secured. It helped to support the masts.

Line 75: Vespers nine.
• It means evenings.
• Usually vesper is used in the sense of ‘evening prayer’.
• Nine – another mystical number like 3 which has supernatural associations.

Line 78-79:
• This interruption by the wedding-guest is definitely not out of impatience.
• He has seen a look of horror gradually appearing & deepening on the mariner’s face and he is frightened. His exclamation wrings from the mariner an avowal of his crying i.e. he seemed to be rather reluctant in confessing it for fear of the agony it would bring with it.
Line 81
• The first part of the poem concludes with a direct reference to the wanton act of shooting the albatross.
Line 88-89
• The vacuum (emptiness because it was not there) created by the death of the albatross is felt by everyone.
Line 90-95
• The other mariners emphasized the fact that the Albatross was a bird of good omen and the ancient mariner had done something very sinful by shooting it .
Line 96-101
• The fog and the mist having cleared off quite unexpected, the sun rose in its entire glorious splendour. The sailors now changed their opinion about the Albatross.
• They declared him to be a bird of ill omen and applauded the ancient mariner for having shot him. According to the critics’ comments, they thus made themselves accomplices in the crime.
• According to a critic, “the changing, variable attitude of the shipmates is noteworthy. They judge the deed and consider it good or bad, not on its merit or by any standard of right or wrong but simply by the result it brings to them and as often as those omens change, so often do they change. They not only make themselves accomplices in the crime, but they are graceless accomplices without the redeeming feature of consistency.
Line 102-105
• A very fine stanza in which the swift movement of the verse reflects the swift movement of the ship.
Line 103
• As the ship was cutting through the waves, it made a track on the surface of water. The mariner felt that the track followed the ship like a swiftly moving stream.
Line 104-105
• The ship now entered the Pacific Ocean.
• A new phase of the journey has begun. But it has been introduced without any preliminaries. The ancient mariner refers to the silent sea as if it were as known to the wedding guest as to the mariner himself.
Line 106-109
• The poet now wants to convey a touch of stillness. So in this stanza, we have a very slow rhythmic movement of the verse. According to a critic, “each line halts” and the effect created by the whole stanza is a feeling of stagnation and helplessness.
Line 110-115
• The sky is hot like burning copper. The mariner’s guilt begins to be reflected in the external nature. There is always a very close correspondence between the fate of the ship and the moves of nature.
Line 116-117
• Two very famous lines giving a perfect picture of a becalmed ship on a completely still ocean.
Line 122
• The stillness of the sea was so complete that it began to rot. A poetic exaggeration is employed to intensify the horror of the sea.
• Christ – an appeal to Christ for help and mercy. A very ironic situation, for one who so mercilessly shot the Albatross is now begging for mercy.
Line 124-125
• These are two of the most gruesome lines ever written. The full effect can be seen best and appreciated when they are read slowly. It is the repetition of words ‘slimy’ and the addition ‘with legs’ that create the extreme sense of the hideousness of the spectacle.
Line 128
• Witch’s oil – the ingredients used by the witch to prepare her broth. There is a description of such a broth in Shakespeare’s Macbeth.
Line 131
• The spirit – the avenging spirit of the South Pole, whose anger has been aroused by the shooting of Albatross.
Line 137
• Evil looks – the tongues of the sailors are dry, their throats are parched. So they cannot utter any words. They curse the mariner with their eyes.
Line 140
• Like part one, this part also concludes with a significant reference to the Albatross. The sailors, in order to fix the sole responsibilities of the sins on the mariner, hang the dead Albatross around his neck.

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JULIUS CAESAR

November 20, 2011 in class 10th, Sample Papers, Tutorials

Character sketch of Julius Caesar

Caesar, as portrayed by Shakespeare, is a mixture of weakness and strength. In the very opening scene of the play the playwright gives us an impression of Caesar as a political and military strength, though at certain times he tells us that his power is being undermined by certain officers of the state.

Although Caesar shows complete disregard for any kind of superstition yet at certain occasions he reveals to be under the impact of superstitions.

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Caesar is fearless but at the same time he has a wavering mind also. When Calpurnia tries to convince him to remain indoors, Caesar fearlessly says that he is ready to accept whatever may be the consequences of stepping out on that day. He very philosophically declares that cowards die many times before their death and the brave never taste of it except once. But when Calpurnia pleads in front of him and bends on her knees, Caesar agrees to follow the words of his wife.

Again when Decius comes and misinterprets Calpurnia’s dream, Caesar is fully convinced and also tempted by the thoughts of being offered the kingly crown, so he decides to get ready to leave the house.

•Here Caesar feels greatly pleased by the flattering interpretation of Calpurnia’s dream .Thus, he appears to have a wavering mind.

Caesar reveals his firmness and his arrogance in the Senate House when Metellus Cimber approaches him with a petition. Caesar firmly rejects the request. Here we admire Caesar’s firmness but we strongly disapprove the arrogant and proud manner in which he speaks to the petitioner. He claims to be one man among countless men as he never changes his mind and never modifies his decisions.

Caesar is also very graceful and dignified in receiving the Senators when they come to his house to fetch him to Senate House. In a very hospitable manner, he offers them to come inside and taste some wine.

Caesar as portrayed by Shakespeare does arouse our admiration because of his strength of character and understanding of human nature but we feel disappointed by his wavering nature, his love of flattery, his arrogance and his boastfulness.

Character Sketch of Marcus Brutus

•When Cassius approaches Brutus and tries to convince and bring him into conspiracy, Shakespeare shows the conflict in his mind due to his love for Caesar and love of freedom .Cassius is able to read the disturbance going on in Brutus’ mind. He targets the mind of Brutus accordingly and succeeds in luring him in the conspiracy party by playing upon his sense of honour and love for freedom and partly also by appealing to him in the name of his ancestors.

•Although Brutus greatly values freedom and wants to safeguard the interest of the common people, yet he is at the same time a dear friend of Caesar.

•Brutus is an idealist who is opposed by the realism and practical sense of Cassius.

•The idealism of Brutus comes out in the course of the play especially when the conspiracy is being planned against Caesar.

•Being an idealist and a visionary with little knowledge of practical realities he fails as a statesman and as a military leader. The lack of political foresight and incapacity to judge the characters of the people whom he has to convince constitute the tragic flaw in him. He shows himself to be too self righteous and self opinionated.

•In dealing with Antony, Brutus shows the same ignorance of the practical reality of life as he had previously when the conspiracy was discussed by him with his fellow conspirators. He shows himself to be more than willing to negotiate with Antony, contrary to the wishes of Cassius and permits him to address the mob. He certainly takes the precaution of himself addressing the mob first, but he then departs, leaving the field free for Antony. He does not foresee the harm which Cassius could and which Antony now does to the cause of the conspirators.

SPEECH OF BRUTUS TO THE MOB:-

•The manner in which Brutus addresses the Roman mob is like a philosopher and not like a politician.

• He tries to appeal to the minds of people not realizing that the mob has only feelings and emotions and no capacity to think.

•In his speech he says that Caesar was ambitious and that it was necessary to kill him in order to prevent him from becoming a dictator and ruling people as if they were his slaves.

•This agreement certainly influences the listeners deeply and emphatically approves the action of the conspirators whereas contrary to this Antony’s speech appealed to the hearts and emotions of the mob and Antony is able to neutralize completely the effect of Brutus’ speech.

TWO MAJOR BLUNDERS COMMITTED BY BRUTUS

One major blunder is that Brutus gives an exhaustive speech to the Roman mob which is beyond their level of understanding.

Another great blunder is committed by him in coming out of the market place immediately after completing his speech and leaving the field clear for Antony. Antony takes full advantage of this and turns the plans of the conspirators upside down.

Antony’s superb oration and its effect upon the mob.

•The speech which Antony delivers to the mob just after Brutus has finished his speech,is a superb specimen of oratory.This speech again shows how crafty he is as the only objective of the speech was to arouse the passions of the mob and to incite them to rebellion against the conspirators and he succeeds fully in this target.

•On the face value Antony seems to be just expressing his grief over Caesar’s death in front of the men. But the ultimate effect of the oration is that the mob feels enraged against the conspirators.

•In the speech Antony points out that Caesar was not at all ambitious that he had the welfare of common people at heart, that the conspirators and specially Brutus have proved ungrateful to Caesar and have committed a severe and a criminal act in murdering him.

•The mob is completely charged by this speech and declares its intentions to cause destruction to the conspirators and also to kill hem. Left alone , Antony feels glad at the result he has achieved and in a brief soliloquy he says that he has been able to set mischief afoot and that the mischief will now take its own course.

Antony’s speech gives an altogether different turn to the events. It is indeed a crucial speech and it marks a turning point in the play.

•Antony proves himself to be a very confident military commander and the victory which he got at the end is as much due to his efforts and initiative in the war as to Octavious Caesar.

Contrast between the funeral speeches of Brutus and Antony.

•Brutus’ speech to the mob is the speech of a philosopher who speaks in a logical manner whereas Antony’s speech is emotional and is intended to stir the feelings and passion of the listeners.
•Brutus’ speech is cold and intellectual. His speech appeals to the intelligence of the listeners and it fails because the listeners in this case are not intelligent enough.
•Brutus’ speech was argumentative and somewhat difficult to understand. His speech is undoubtedly an excellent specimen of reasoning. The logic behind his speech is absolutely clear but again the point remains that logic is something which the common people do not understand. But it does not mean that Brutus is speaking to people who are utterly ignorant. The point is that the people understand his reasoning only to a limited extent. They surrender to his logic only because they have a high opinion about him.

•Brutus fails to understand the mob:
Brutus tries to appeal to the people’s love of freedom. He tries to stir their hatred of tyranny but he does not understand that people at this point in Roman history are not very enlightened and they do not understand the talk about freedom and slavery.

Speech of Antony

The merits of Antony’s speech are:
•Antony knows the psychology of the mob and he appeals directly to this psychology. He does not talk of the principle of freedom or the evil of tyranny and slavery rather he speaks about the wounds which have been inflicted upon Caesar’s body.
•He speaks about the ingratitude of Brutus who was loved as a dear friend by Caesar.
•He talks of Caesar’s will in which he had made the roman mob an heir to his property.
•Antony makes use of several rhetoric devices in the course of his speech. He makes use of irony when he says again and again that Brutus is an honorable man and others too are honorable man.
•He exploits the sympathy of the mob by pointing to each wound on Caesar’s body by connecting it with one or other conspirator.
•Another important difference is that Brutus speaks to the mob in prose, whereas Antony speaks to mob in verse. Antony’s speech makes use not only of rhetorical but also of poetic devices. Therefore Antony imparts narrative quality to his speech and targets the feelings and passion of his listeners.